Lee also details the nativist and racist resistance these immigrants encountered in many of these countries, including harassment, mob violence, expulsion, and most significantly, exclusion. Indeed, the author asserts, the passage of exclusion laws specifically targeting Asian migrants in the nineteenth century created the first undocumented immigrants, and gave rise to the issues of illegal immigration and border policing with which Americans continue to grapple in the present Lee ultimately attributes the mass incarceration to racial prejudices against Japan and Japanese people held by key figures in North and South American governments at the time.
In particular, Lee highlights the argument made by historian Ellen Wu, who contends that the stereotype of the Asian American as model minority took hold in the s specifically because it valorized the nuclear family and upheld anticommunist ideals As Lee demonstrates elsewhere, this stereotype has persisted throughout the twentieth century and remains unfortunately prevalent in the twenty-first. Adopting a pan-ethnic and transnational identity, these activists protested American imperialism in Asia, particularly the Vietnam War, and worked to secure greater rights and privileges for newly arrived immigrants.
Lee also details the trials faced by Southeast Asian refugees in the last decades of the twentieth century, who were initially welcomed into the United States but were eventually marginalized and resented.
She also describes how, according to historian Franklin Odo, the pervasive stereotype of the model minority has led Asian Americans to be overly accepting of novel forms of racism Written for a general audience, The Making of Asian America is a highly accessible and enjoyable read. Samuel C.
phy of Asian American Immigration," Journal of American Ethnic History 17 (Fall 3This essay discusses people of Asian descent, but because the source of. Series: Finding a Path Forward: Asian American Pacific Islander National Historic Essay Asian Immigrants and Refugees: Demographic.
Because of exclusion laws that culminated with the Immigration Act, however, the Asian American population was relatively miniscule before the mid-twentieth century. As late as , for example, Asian immigrants and their descendants constituted considerably less than 1 percent 0.
In contrast, in Hawai'i, which was then a territory and therefore excluded from United States population figures, 58 percent of the people in were of Asian descent. Hawaii's People , 3rd ed.
Honolulu : University of Hawaii Press , , See Larry H. See Robert E.
Fujita and David J. James Freeman, Changing Identities: Vietnamese Americans, — Boston: Allyn and Bacon, provides a general introduction to the historical background of Vietnamese refugees, their journey to the United States, their resettlement and employment, and their adjustment to American life. Pang and Li-Rong Lilly Cheng, ed.
Emma Gee et al. See also Donald T. Nakanishi and Marsha Hirano-Nakanishi, ed.
gerwabarich.tk Dana Y. This essay is a revision of a paper presented at the annual meeting of the History of Education Society held in Atlanta, Georgia. The author wishes to thank the anonymous reviewers of the History of Education Quarterly for their constructive comments. Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.
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