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What we can verify is the existence of punctual actions to improve national competitiveness, through bodies such as the Federation of Industries and the Federation of Commerce, for their respective publics. Int J Qual Reliab Manag. They found low discriminant validity suggesting questions belonged to multiple concepts. This criterion of the model, besides analyzing the organization of the current processes of work and management of educational projects, seeks to innovate existing processes in favor of improvements with forecast contingency and risk analysis; with this, it intends to achieve the success of the current operations and sustainability, and the readiness to contour emergencies BPEP, Schniederjans et al. We use publicly available data on quality assessment of healthcare organizations that applied for the Baldrige award to examine two research questions: 1 whether the Baldrige model is a reliable and valid model for assessment of quality practices in healthcare organizations, and 2 to determine the relationship between quality practices and their impact on quality results in the healthcare organizations.
Framework Proposal for Open Minimum Qualitative Variables to Perceived Function: An Investigation A Co-evolution Framework towards Given Enough Eyeballs, All Crimes are Institutionalization of Research Literature Review of the Measurement A Multifold Perspective of Knowledge Innovative HRM. A Review of the Therefore, the difference between effectiveness and efficacy occurs to the extent that effectiveness consists in the attainment of quantitatively established goals that is, the effects over what is planned.
The effectiveness is given in the quantitative aspect and, mainly, in the qualitative aspect that is, the influences , in the relationships between the planned and the final results obtained MELO and NETO, Therefore, we will verify hypothesis The operational proposition of implementing the model for this research, based on the assumptions of Leadership; Strategic planning; Focus on Customer; Measurement, Analysis and Knowledge Management; Focus on the Workforce; and Focus on Operation, is shown in Figure 2. Performance evaluation is an organized process for collecting data on specific criteria, to form opinion based on data and evidence.
In the case of HEIs, in order to make an assessment it is necessary to know the elements that configure its structure, the curricular guidelines adopted, the current action plans, among other peculiarities that characterize them as a complex organizational type, because there are particularities and differentials in each educational institution ZANIN et al. In this way, the performance evaluation, which includes the institutional evaluation, is understood as a process that offers the educational manager several information which makes it possible to evaluate and measure the effectiveness of the HEI management and, with this, to understand the impact of their decisions to implement organizational improvement actions.
Research of quantitative nature, of the descriptive type in a case study, has as its analysis object the largest private Brazilian for-profit education organization, which operates in the model of investment group in corporation, with participation in the stock exchange. The company has been active in the educational market since , with approximately , undergraduate and graduate students, with poles of Distance Education DE and with 53 campuses of face-to-face teaching located in all regions of the Country.
The disclosure of relevant facts to investors by the HEI is that the company, after its last merger in , has an estimated market value of more than 22 billion BRL and holds almost one million students in Higher Education in Brazil. The informants in the survey consist of Unit Officers, Administrative Employees Administration, employees , Lectures and Course Coordinators Faculty, 1, employees. The research instrument questions were elaborated based on the Baldrige Excellence Model BPEP, supported by the theoretical framework.
The pre-test of the research instrument was carried out with 5 employees of the HEI and no inconsistencies were detected. The Likert scale questionnaire ranging from one to ten was composed of 46 questions required as mandatory, so that, in no answered questionnaire, there were missing data.
The research instrument is presented in Table 1. We obtained data by means of a survey with dissemination of the questionnaire on the internet and subsequent sending of an invitation to participate in the research by e-mail. After completing the field survey, we obtained questionnaires, corresponding to All seven HEI units are represented in the sample, with those being Betim The distribution of respondents by unit and function is shown in Table 2.
In relation to the sample, we did not observe atypical, inconsistent or unexpected records, on the basis of the obligation to reply to all questions. With the intention of choosing the appropriate statistical methods to be used for data analysis, the normality of the sample was verified through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.
The data in the present study did not follow a normal, uni or multivariate distribution. On the other hand, in studies with large samples, the negative effects of non-normality tend to be less harmful HAIR JR. We therefore considered, the characteristic of non-normality of the sample to choose the method of estimation of the parameters with the Structural Equations Modeling Based on Covariance MEE-CB.
Dimensionality analysis is performed to find out if the data set observed is in agreement with the latent factors of the theoretical model HAIR JR. We performed an Exploratory Factor Analysis on each theoretical construct, in order to verify the reliability of the variables to each of their respective constructs. In this construct, the items with low commonality were removed, that is, excluding the variables III. The Exploratory Factor Analysis pointed to two eigenvalues greater than 1 for the Focus on the Workforce, which caused it to be divided into two groups, by observing the factor coefficients for its variables, and so the items VI.
The sub-items were created based on the content expressed in the affirmations, with the indicators of the sub-item being elements contained in the Focus on the Workforce construct. Acceptable values should be greater than 0. According to Hair et al.
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Therefore, from now on, the Focus on the Workforce construct is now referred to as Focus on Training and Feedback. The convergent validity analysis also suggests that the Confirmatory Factor Analysis is used as a means of verifying the significance of the relationship of the constructs of interest with the measured indicators HAIR et al. The analysis did not indicate any variable with convergent validity problems. However, in the Exploratory Factor Analysis many pairs did not present discriminant validity.
Therefore, a method with less conservative characteristics was used to verify the discriminant validity and two Confirmatory Factor Analysis, with each pair of constructs.
In the first one, the correlation between the constructs was fixed in 1 and, in the second, the correlation between the constructs was estimated freely. If the chi-square statistic of the model decreases when the correlation between each two factors is freely estimated, there is discriminant validity between this pair, and the difference between the statistics is compared with the chi-square distribution BAGOZZI, YI and PHILIPS, The results demonstrated the existence of discriminant validity for all pairs of constructs, thus proving that the variables measure different aspects of the phenomena of interest.
The analysis of the measurement model was carried out and we confirmed the reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity of the variables and constructs, the analysis of the structural model was performed through MEE-CB, once it facilitates the discovery and confirmation of relationships between multiple variables BARRET, ; HAIR JR. To verify the adjustment of the structural models, we used measures of absolute, incremental and parsimonious adjustments HAIR JR.
The greater or lower quality of a model is measured by matching the input data matrix, real or observed covariance or correlation , with that predicted by the model HAIR et al. The summary of the hypothetical model shows that Strategic Planning and Focus on Operation directly influence the Management Effectiveness, which allows us to accept hypotheses H2 and H6.
The results are shown in Figure 3. However, hypotheses H1, H3, H4 and H5 are rejected because the relations are not statistically significant. That is, we do not observe direct influence of the constructs Leadership; Focus on Customer; Measurement, Analysis and Knowledge Management; and Focus on Training and Feedback, when correlated in the Construct Management Effectiveness. The regression coefficients for the theoretical model are presented in Table 3. As for the evaluation of the hypothesis H7, it was only possible to consider with the alternative model proposed below.
In social surveys it is good practice to observe the fit of each construct and its respective items, individually in relation to the model, to determine which ones are weakly associated with the variable. Items that have multiple correlation lower than 0. In addition, each factor could be modeled in relation to the other factors to find possible relationships between them that were not initially predicted HAIR JR.
After the analysis of the correlations between the constructs, we proposed an alternative model, in order to verify hypothesis H7.
follow To determine the relationships in the alternative model, we first considered the confirmation of the hypotheses H2 and H6 on the theoretical model that pointed out to Management Effectiveness, a direct influence of the Strategic Planning and Focus on Operation and thus, we understood that these would be mediators of the other constructs, that is, dependent second order variables. Secondly, the other constructs as a function of the relationships visualized in Figure 1 , therefore, were positioned as independent first order variables.
That is, the Leadership and Customer Focus constructs, when mediated by Strategic Planning; and the Constructs Measurement, Analysis and Knowledge Management and Focus on Training and Feedback, when mediated by Focus Operation, influence Management Effectiveness, that is, the dependent third-order variable.
The alternative model and results are presented in Figure 4. About the alternative model, we verified the existence of statistically significant relationships and only the variable V.
The regression coefficients for the alternative model are presented in Table 4. Finally, we observe in Figure 4 that the alternative model summary presents better fit quality indicators, when compared to those obtained in the theoretical model. From the perspective of the Baldrige Excellence Model, the internal and external environments of the organization must be analyzed BPEP, This means realizing that the relationship of strategy to leadership and focus on customer, particularly when strategic planning is influenced by the last two, should be seen as the possibility of achieving the results that are on the definition of goals and objectives of the HEI, because this implies the way in which the direction, when considering the reach of the results, leads the work teams, professors and the administrative staff, in addition to communicating with customers, students, shareholders, among other stakeholders.
In fact, it is demonstrated that strategic planning is a tool to support decision making KICH and PEREIRA, , with this, we can understand it as a way for the organization to prepare for the future. It was evidenced that the constructs Leadership 0. An interpretation derived from these relationships is that the type of leadership, as described by Rocha, Cavalcanti and Souza , p.
These results point out that there is a greater concern in the HEI with the levels of student satisfaction, when considering the existence of other competitors, as well as the segmentation and attention given to complaints, suggestions and expectations that emerge as a way of responding quickly to internal demands, interfering with the level of student satisfaction and retention. Focus on Operation was positively related 0.
From the perspective of the Baldrige Excellence Model, special attention should be given not only to the strategy formulation process, but to the strategy itself in action BPEP, Thus, the educational operations, contextualized as the accomplishment of the tasks associated with teaching, the educational, administrative and financial processes, besides the possibility of reversing functional frameworks, when unforeseen situations occur, it indicates in the HEI a concern of the direction with the work teams, and administrative staff, because they are responsible for making the strategy come true, within the action plans established by the management.
This is corroborated by Kich and Pereira , by stating that the operationalization of the strategy, as a way of achieving the objectives outlined is more important than the strategic planning process itself. This last value means that Focus on Training and Feedback is the most important aspect for the achievement of educational operations at the HEI, which suggests managerial attention to the aspects related to the qualification and performance of the work teams, as an efficient allocation and creation of high performance teams, when thinking about the achievement of results.
This implies the need to correctly choose the information technology solutions that are used in the HEI, besides providing the administrative and teaching staff with adequate conditions for the use of computerized solutions through training and qualification. The objective of this study is to analyze the antecedents of management effectiveness of higher education of a Brazilian HEI according to the Baldrige Excellence Model. Finally, in order for the strategy to take action, contemplated in educational operations, measurement, analysis and management of knowledge has an important role in capturing, organizing and supporting decision-making through the organization of information systems GEORGES, ; BPEP, , but it can only become more relevant if actions are built and directed towards training and feedback from the workforce.
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